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Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.The establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to 966 A.The origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans (Polanie) that inhabited the Warta river's basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century.The origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole" (field).He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's civil and criminal laws, 1333–70.The Golden Liberty of the nobles began to develop under Casimir's rule, when in return for their military support, the king made a series of concessions to the nobility, and establishing their legal status as superior to that of the townsmen.However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer.In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the German march into Poland.
Historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest (about 1 million km which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of .
Following the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles.
His efforts to create an institution of higher learning in Poland were finally rewarded when Pope Urban V granted him permission to open the University of Kraków.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great.
In 1226, Konrad I of Masovia, one of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision that led to centuries of warfare with the Knights.